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Chaptar-5

ORIGIN OF PAKISTAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION (PDA)

Mr. S. M. Iqbal of Punjab Dental Depot was active and also started publishing Pakistan Dental Review at 24-The Mall, Lahore and with him, were the editors i.e. A. Wilson Mitchell, S. Eckbelle, J. R. Gill, J. B. Sproull, Gosta Lindblom, M. Abdul Haq, William Alan Grainger and Richard. H. Roydhouse. This magazine was distributed in all the Universities of the World and was used by students, doctors and teachers. It was great contribution of Sheikh Iqbal for promotion of the dental profession. For a very long time till the death of Dr. H. R. Shah in 1969 the Dental Association had three members from unqualified practitioners and three members from qualified practitioners. After the sad demise of Dr. H. R. Shah, Dr. Haider Tirmizi became the Principal of de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore became the President. Dr. Tirmizi was distinguished teacher and orthodontics specialist and was staff president of Dental Students Union during 1954-56 when I was General Secretary and President respectively and he had the experience of student activities in dentistry and well knowledge to build up the dental science. Later on Dr. Latif Ch., Dr. Hafiz Ghulam Rasool, Railway and Dr. Ahmed Hassan, private practitioner and myself was became the General Secretary PDA 1967-1968 and president Pakistan Dental Association 1970-71. When Dr. Muhammad Saleem Cheema became Secretary and he proposed the job of Secretary to be a qualified dental surgeon previously Mr. S. M. Iqbal was doing this job and he was retired.

Dr. H. R. Shah had the qualities to develop the profession and the sections at Multan, Hyderabad and Peshawar were established due to his efforts. He was very keen in expanding the dental position in Baluchistan as well. He visited Quetta in 1958 and had traveled with me to Kallat Division for establishment of dental clinic at Kallat. He was all the time coordinating and upgrading dental profession and extended such needs to graduates. He started postgraduate master degrees in the college of Punjab University and he presented the master degrees to, Prof. Dr. M. Saleem Cheema, (1956), Haider Tirmizi, (1957) without thesis only on examination, Dr Ghulam Sibtain (1958), Dr. Saeed Ahmed Malik (1961), Prof. Dr. B. A. Yazdanie, (1962), Col. Muhammad Hussain, (1963), Col. Atta Barki (1963) respectively were given with small writing. He had notable intention and had contacts with the high ups. Prior to partition, Dr Baij Nath, had passed MDS 1942, in Prosthetics, Dr. Ijaz ul Haq did MDS 1947, in Prosthetics, Dr. K. L. Shori, Passed MDS 1946 in operative dentistry. Dr. Bulray Vacher, passed 1944 in Orthodontics.

FORMATION OF PDA CENTRE

There was a national conference of dental surgeons at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi in 1983 I was a coordinator of conference. Since there was no national Dental Association, it was at Lahore and Karachi and I wrote following letters to leaders of Dental Profession prior to this conference to frame and creation of national association. I declared at Rawalpindi that I shall not contest the election of Pakistan Dental Association President Centre, so due to this decision at Rawalpindi, that the Karachi PDA Branch was asked to conduct election on Pakistan basis, thus Karachi Branch has taken share of dignity to organize the election on Pakistan basis, besides this it has contributed a large by holding many international conferences, head of states were invited at Karachi. The Karachi Branch too had the credit to publish the JOPDAK which is a great academic service but still there is need of many things. Here is my letter written to all leaders of Dental Profession for uniting the profession at one platform.


Dated March 14, 1983
My dear doctor
"I take this opportunity to advocate the cause of unification of the Pakistan Dental Association for creating its centre. This is out of my patriotism and desire that our representative body should be represented by all the regions so with this sincere belief I put forward suggestion that out of the many factors to be discussed at Rawalpindi Conference, we should faster our relations for the purpose of self-awareness and new ideas for practicing our customs, ethics and honourable dealing under the umbrella of Pakistan Dental Association without any prejudice or risk of danger for attacking any personality.

I, therefore, suggest that the group leaders of all the provinces should pool their sources to emerge central body of the Pakistan Dental Association.

This is a basic problem for me, which so far is not in balance. I have tried that a branch of N.W.F.P. should be created so that unity and resources should form a national integrated body. However, we can ask the interested persons for cohesive pattern to constitute a branch at N.W.F.P. which shall make up Pakistan level branches of the Association.

The branches at Karachi and Punjab-Lahore are already practical and they are adopting specific objectives representing large number of population of the dentists and their policies have been found much for the professional interests. Similarly the newly evolved branch at Rawalpindi-Islamabad comprising of the Azad Kashmir has created a lead in unifying the profession and has come out as an effective branch. With efforts of our senior colleague Dr. Rashid A Malik, Dr M Z K Niazi, Dr. Abdul Qadir and Dr Arshad Mahmood Malik. Similarly branch at Quetta has emerged under the efforts of Dr. Farrukh Ejaz and we hope that this shall advance in their mission and influence the dental brotherhood.

I am, therefore, of the opinion that the Presidents of all the branches may get together for considering the possibilities of growing up a centre which shall be meaningful and more effective comparatively for our organization and it shall be more collaborative system for solving the problems of the dentists in the country. We have many problems. They can only be solved if we are possessing national platform and which can exploit the talents and can solve the prevailing problems of dentists of the country. Much of the problems are (i) the menace of the quackery and (ii) unemployment for new graduates, (iii) problems for setting up of new clinics, (iv) non-availability of the modern technology and knowledge about the new machines. (v) Much of the problems exist for education, both at undergraduate level and postgraduate level and uniformity of the profession at all levels. There is a much of the calculus on the dental profession which needs proper instrumentation and removal of such deposits deposits. We have to adopt our cultural tradition and love for country and for its development. Therefore, for these objectives I seek your help for strengthening my idea that when we are here at Rawalpindi, we should evolve some measures to be unified and I feel Brig. Ata ur Rehman Khan, Dean Dental Faculty, College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan is capable to give us a lead and help our profession because of his past services for uplifting the profession and organizing the International Conference of dental surgeons of Pakistan" 1983 - The letters were sent to

  • Dr. Rashid A. Malik, the than President, Rawalpindi -Islamabad Branch.
  • Dr. Farrukh Ejaz, the than President, Quetta Branch.
  • Dr. Atta ur Rehman, the than Dean Dental Faculty, College of Physician & Surgeons Pakistan.
  • Dr. Ahmed Iqbal, the than Dean Dental Faculty, Peshawar.
  • Dr. Khalid Mansoor
  • Dr. Ijaz Aqeel, Dr. Mervyn Hossein

So, on this letter Central Council of Pakistan Dental Association, came into being. After the election of 1984 Karachi. In my letter dated 17.06.1986 I narrated that the elections are over of Central Council of Pakistan Dental Association but there are certain problems faced to our dental profession which needs attention of PDA like quackery, unemployment of dentist, unequal status and facilities, for postgraduate learning and effective under graduate education and production of the teachers in the field of research. So I have striving hard for uplift of profession and the Dental Association. The constitution of Pakistan Dental Association Lahore was framed in 1960 and the association was registered with Registration No. 6-LR 1960 of the Pakistan Dental Association. Ist Pakistan Dental Convention 27-28th February 1972 was held under Lahore Branch.

Prior to this Conference 1983 the Karachi branch held Ist Pakistan International Dental Congress 17-19 Sept. 1981 in which I have read the paper "Oral Bacteriological Findings, Sensitivity and Resistance to Antibiotics". And after the conference at Rawalpindi there was Second Sind Dental Conference Karachi
29-30 March 1984. Dr. Mervyn Hossein was clinical secretary and I have read the paper. I have represented the Dental Association in Pakistan Medical and Dental Council as representative of Govt. of Punjab and NWFP for about 7 years. I always persuaded the cause of Dental Profession at every important meeting with high ups in this manner.
We had the dental health programme at Lahore in 1973 and we have been working for promotion of the teachers in various branches.

The delivery of quality of the oral health care given to the public at private level and Government level needs to be specified by the Pakistan Dental Association in the dental association's meetings. There is need to emphasis the importance of dental health profession among the medical doctors and public so that the right of practice should be given in the hands of those who are qualified and these qualified persons have got right of operation and prescribing the medicine. The qualified persons have the right to relieve the pain of sufferer. Medicine / Dentistry is the other Medical branches of health profession or a branch of medical profession. There is great responsibility on the shoulder of dental surgeons and there is need that dental surgeons should be skillful and honest in dealing the profession. So the high standard of profession should continue in education so that we my compete globally. There is need for social and health education services to be carried out by the member of the Pakistan Dental Association and there is need of community, survey may be carried out along with the relieve to community.
There is much important factor that is a scarcity of the teachers in the teaching institutions both in the private sector and public sector. With the result the standard of dental education at graduate level cannot be remarkable. There are many Pakistani dentists abroad, who had obtained postgraduate qualification and there are many in Pakistan with postgraduate qualification, these personnel should be provided the opportunity to act as teacher. This is very important job for the association. For example de'Montmorency College of Dentistry is a premier institution of the country. In this almameter there are one regular Professor who is Principal having highest qualification of PhD-Prof. of Prosthodontics and another Prof. of Oral Surgery - In Multan so there is perhaps one Prof. working in both public institutions, a few Associate Professor have been promoted on contract as professor. Similar situation at Hyderabad, Bolan and Peshawar, the position is the same i.e. lacking of the professors. And same situation is in the private sector, for example, the retired persons are made head of the Private Dental Colleges. The Pakistan Dental Association, Lahore under my presidentship 1973-1996 had pooled the resource to create the professorial jobs and courses in order to absorb the qualified people who are available at home or who are back from abroad.
REGISTRATION ACT IN DENTAL SURGERY

The aim of the registration stand that "responsibility of Dental Practice, should be assumed only by those with full training and having knowledge of technology of this science". The un-registration of un-qualified Dentists leads to more and more spread of quackery, lesser chance of practice to qualified doctors and several harms to the patients. The registration act may be enforced with a forming of a sub-committee for the purpose of giving a registration to the un-qualified persons after the examinations of stay in practice, their education and their standard of treatment to the patients. In England this act came into being in 1879, with these words I conclude my speech and hope if they are implemented, they shall serve the purpose of dentistry.

I once again thank to every member of the profession, their families and friends for coming over here to make the function a success. I am highly grateful to Dr. Amir Muhammad Khan, who has very kindly accepted this invitation on behalf of the Dental Association for this evening.


THE DENTISTS ACT, 1921 (11 & 12 Geo. V Cap. 21)
(Passed 28th July, 1921)

An Act to amend the Dentists Act, 1878, and the provisions of the Medical Act, 1886, amending that Act.

Be it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows: -

3. Right of certain persons to be admitted to register -

(1) The Board shall admit to the dentists register kept under the principal Act.

    • any person who makes an application in that behalf within the interim period and satisfies the Board that he -
  • is of good personal character; and
  • was for any five of the seven years immediately preceding the commencement of this Act engaged as his principal means of livelihood in the practice of dentistry in the British Islands, or was admitted to membership of te Incorporated Dental Society not less than one year before the commencement of this Act; and
  • had attained the age of twenty-three years before the commencement of this Act; and
    • any person who makes an application in that behalf within the interim period and satisfies the Board that he -
  • is of good personal character; and
  • was for any five of the seven years immediately preceding the commencement of this Act engaged as his principal means of livelihood in the occupation of a dental mechanic in the British Islands ; and
  • had attained the age of twenty-three years before the commencement of this Act; and who within ten years from that date passes the prescribed examination in dentistry.
    • Any person who satisfies the Board that he was at the commencement of this Act engaged as his principal means of livelihood in the practice of dentistry in the British Islands, and within two years from the commencement of this Act passes the prescribed examination in dentistry, shall, for the purposes of this section, be treated as having been engaged for five of the seven years immediately preceding the commencement of this Act in the practice of dentistry in the British Islands as his principal means of livelihood.
    • Any person who is a duly registered pharmaceutical chemist or duly registered chemist and druggist shall, if he proves to the satisfaction of the Board that he had immediately before the commencement of this Act a substantial practice as a dentist and that his practice included all usual dental operations, be treated for the purposes of this section as having been engaged for any five of the seven years immediately preceding the commencement of this Act in the practice of dentistry in the British Islands as his principal means of livelihood.
    • The Board may, on such conditions as they may consider proper, dispense in the case of any person with any of the requirements prescribed by this section, other than requirements as to character or age, if they are satisfied that that person is unable to satisfy those requirements by reason of having served in His Majesty's forces, or of having been engaged during the war in some work of national importance, and that it will not be prejudicial to the public interest to dispense with those requirements.
    • Regulations may be made under this Act for prescribing the manner in which applications under this section are to be made, and generally for carrying this section into effect.

________________

THE DENTISTS ACT, 1923 (13 & 14 Geo. V. Cap. 36)
(Passed 2nd August, 1923)

An Act to amend the Dentists Act, 1921.

Be it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows: -

1. Extension of s. 3 of Dentists Act, 1921. Section three of the Dentists Act, 1921 (which confers on certain persons the right to be admitted to the dentists register), shall be extended so as to require the Dental Board to admit to the dentists register any person who -

    • makes an application in that behalf within six months from the commencement of this Act or, in the case of any person as respects whom the Board are satisfied that there were valid reasons for the failure to make an application within the said period of six months, within such further period not exceeding six months as the Board may allow; and
    • satisfies the Board that he -
    • is of good personal character; and
    • had, before the date of the eleventh day of November, nineteen hundred and twenty-one, attained the age of twenty-one years; and
    • served during the late war in His Majesty's forces; and
    • was at the date aforesaid engaged, as his principal means of livelihood, in the practice of dentistry in the British Islands; and

(3) within such period, not being less than two years from the commencement of this Act, as the Board may allow, passes the prescribed examination.

  • Short title. This Act may be cited as the Dentists Act, 1923, and this Act and the Dentists Acts, 1878 and 1921, may be cited together as the Dentists Acts, 1878 to 1923.

It will be interesting that in United Kingdom a Committee of House of Commons was appointed as early as 1832 to enquire into the state of Medical Profession and in particular to study the question of a general registration of Practitioners and to determine the nature and extent of unqualified Practitioners,. The first Dental Act was passed in 1878 and later on the Dental Acts of 1921 and 1923 did not debar the unqualified dentists from practicing dentistry, but were regularized and admitted to the dentists register copy attached Appendix I.

Further I quote from Legal Aspects of dental Practice - THE DENTISTS ACT, page 11, regarding admission to the dentists register for the unqualified dental practitioners.

The Register

Whilst the 1921 Act went much further than previous enactments in protecting the general public by excluding all but registered dentists from the practice of dentistry, the real interest in the Act was the means by which the register was compiled. There was no insistence that the dentist had necessarily to hold a license or any other qualification awarded by a teaching establishment, but that simply he had to comply with one of the two following requirements: -

"Any person of good personal character, being over twenty three years of age, and who for five of the seven years preceding the Act was engaged as his principal means of livelihood in the practice of dentistry in the British Islands, or was admitted to membership of the Incorporated Dental Society not less than one year preceding the Act".
(The Incorporated Dental Society was unregistered under the 1878 Act, and was a society of unqualified persons practicing dentistry). Similar conditions for registration were offered to dental mechanics and pharmaceutical chemists, whose professional work included a substantial amount of dental practice.

The register was thus opened to those who, although without a qualification in dentistry, had been practicing dentistry in a professional capacity. No definite time was laid down within which registration had to be made, and in the light of the following statute, the Dentists Act 1923, as much as two years was accepted.

Moreover, according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, report no. 298, published in 1965 "ORGANIZATION OF DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES".