English French German Italian Portuguese Russian Spanish


When Pakistan was created on 14th of August, 1947 most of the teachers & students from Hindu and Sikh community left for India. There was a great vacuum of both the teachers and students. There was fear of the failure of teaching institution of the sub-continent. Dr. Haider Tirmzi and Dr. B. A. Yazdanie who had graduated immediately before partition, and they were given the assignment of Demonstratorship of the college. Dr. Abbas Haider graduated in 1948 from the Punjab University, he was only one candidate and he too was accommodated as demonstrator.
de'Montmorency College was headed by American scholar. First Principal was Dr. Mitchal and later on Dr. C.D. Marshal Day headed the college. He left Pakistan in July 1947. Dr. Abdul Haq MBBS & BDS was appointed as a Principal. The few students were available in the college, when Dr. Abdul Haq took over, the condition of the education was disappointing he took keen interest to popularize the dental education. I was given admission for BDS class in 1952 by Dr. Abdul Haq, a few dedicated teachers were in the staff and Dr. Haider Tirmzi being a sports person a swimmer of a competency was given the charge of staff president. They propagated and worked for the college. Since the college had international reputation because it was established in 1934 and it continued.
There were few students who took the initiative to hold a meeting in the Metro-Hotel Lahore in January 1948 then Provincial Minister for Health Govt. of Punjab, Sh. Karamat Ali was invited in this meeting as a chief guest and some few renowned dynamic persons with great push and editors of the news papers like Hameed Nizami, Chief Editor Nawa-e-Waqt, Z. A. Sulehri, Editor Pakistan Times were invited in order to promote dentistry.
It may be remembered that basic subjects like anatomy, physiology, biochemistry; pathology, pharmacology, general medicine and general surgery were taught by the professors and teachers of KEMC for first three years alongwith dental subjects. There used to the collective supports of both the colleges King Edward Medical College and de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore and union functions were also collective so in this function. The physician of Quaid-e-Azam, Principal KEMC Prof. Col Illahi Bukhsh was also present in this function and Col. S. M. K. Malik Secretary Health was also invited. Abbas Haider was sports secretary.
In case of operative dentistry, there used to be Foot dental engines and hydraulic pump dental chair was pushed up and down with Foot, likewise silver amalgam was mixed in mortar with pestle and hardly rubber dam was available. Stainless steel burs were to make the cavities. A few cases were put for root canal therapy and all cavities cases were filled with zinc Oxy Phosphate cement or silver amalgam. Scaling was the only way of gums treatment in this department of the gums surgery was not available. Dr. Hamayun Akhtar was incharge of the operative department The children were treated in the same department, chairs were placed in rows facing the windows for sunlight. The operative department was headed over all by the personality of Dr. H. R. Shah who was a good leader of the profession and teacher in operative dentistry.
Dr. H. R. Shah used to take the practical class of operative dentistry with following words:
Take round bur, then the fissure bur, run it around the cusps into the fissures, then you are take inverted cone bur for use to clear pulpal wall, Rubber dam was shown as part of demonstration by Dr. Ghulam Sibtain, Senior House Surgeon. Dr. M. Saleem Cheema used to be demonstrator in prosthetic dept. after he had passed BDS, 1952. Later on, he was attached with surgery, and managed to get MDS from Punjab University in 1956 without thesis. Written examination was conducted for MDS, the Chief Examiner was H. R. Shah who was B.A, LDR, LDS. Dr. Shah was son-in-law of a very influential personality Mian Afzal Hussain, Vice Chancellor of Punjab University, who had changed rules of thesis. There was no thesis for MDS Examination for Dr. Muhammad Saleem Cheema, Dr. Haider Tirmzi, Dr. B. A. Yazdanie and later on thesis was essential for Dr. Atta Burkee and Saeed Ahmed Malik and everybody.
In Orthodontic Department, a few lectures were given by Dr. Haider Tirmzi MDS. He used to treat the malformed teeth with removable appliances. Prosthetic department. It was very attractive department, patients were from rich & poor class and pretty girls used to get bridge. Art and science of making false teeth was done. In 1st year teaching was of dental materials, prosthetic laboratory work and then boiling of the flask setting of teeth making of impression and in the final year the students had a quota to make atleast 8 full dentures 16 partial denture. The crown and crown bridge work as quota to make 4 crowns for everybody. This department was headed by Dr. Ejaz ul Haq, MDS and Dr.
B. A. Yazdanie, MDS, Mr. Sutlan Sheikh, Head Dental technician was the triumphant of the dept and we used to share the knowledge of setting of teeth from him. All the denture work was done with flasks over stoves. Mian Muazzam Ali was another senior dental technician.
de'Montmorency College used to have the liaison with King Edward Medical College for basic sciences i.e anatomy, physiology, bio-chemistry, pathology, pharmacology, general medicine and general surgery. The students had to visit the Medical Wards in the evening to prepare the studies for surgery and medical examination. Sports and debates were together with KEMC, dental students were allowed to stay at KEMC Hostel, and there was good cooperation among the medical teachers and students. The Medical Teachers used to attend almost all the functions of the dental college and vice versa. In case of catastrophe like the flood (1953) in the Lady Wellington Hospital the dental students took on themselves the social work, on their part to help the medical students and patients. There was more chance of development of common sense and knowledge of dental science by the teachers, there was respects for teachers in field of medical science. The students had easy approach to the teachers and used to get benefit out of thoughts and ideas of the teachers for examination. Dr. Shafique, BDS in exodontia department was the marvelous teacher and very fine operator and a good surgeon, with clear cut habit of help and encouragement. He had the value of instructions how to remove the tooth of the patients, students, beside the chair correct headrest of the patient position of operator, application of instruments and direction of force for removal of tooth. With this technique I never used alleviator except in the last molar, and never ever broken the tooth with his technique and I have not seen any case of dry socket in my life. He was enterprising teacher with many varieties of softness, benefits both to the patient and students. Dr. B. A. Yazdanie was corner for students for his professional help. He was very fast runner and was demanded by everybody. He was master of setting of teeth. Number of students were very less and number of girls students were very few. One girl Fehmida was senior to us and two girls, were in our class. Spirit lamp was the source as burner. Teachers used to give notes, books were not available, so the dentistry at that time was entirely different from the present day.

When we, used to show our set up for full denture to Dr.
B. A. Yazdanie on first look, would say good, very good, but then this tooth should be here, this should be here, in no time, all over model teeth in wax are out and were asked to set up again. It was most annoying attitude, Dr. Ejaz some time would throw model out of the Window.
Mostly dentistry was practiced by unqualified private practitioners because there was no qualified dental surgeons in Lahore and elsewhere. The barber used to remove the tooth with scalpel, which he used to cut nails of the customers. Blacksmith was the other puller of the teeth with their own forceps. Without anesthesia, no dental chair, patients were sitting on the wooden stool or on ground. Two young man would hold the hands of patients when Blacksmith use to put his forceps. In the trible area, the removal of tooth was very difficult an elderly person used to tie the painful tooth with wire and wire fixed up with the tree, the patient is standing and the patient is given Chuka a rod having sharp nail and with this push of sharp nail and patient will shake his neck either the tooth is out itself, or it is broken or half of the jaw is out. The dental extraction was the most painful procedure of unqualified person and life threatening procedure in pre-partition days. There were many persons, who willfully pretend to her Doctor for removal of the teeth. Some of the unlicensed people were acting as the holy man or they used to put many herbal medicine with the result half of the face is washed up by bacterial toxin. In many places a Cow dug was rapped on the face no body knew the content of the dung thus most valuable part of face is chipped of. There was no dental surgeon in NWFP till 1954 and no dental surgeon in Baluchistan till 1956. So there are many evidences that it was awful conditions of the people suffering from toothache, which I had seen physically. Therefore, I hold a debate to profession from which we have received the confidence, knowledge in profit so ought the duty, we endeveour to amend the path and help the suffering nation.
X- Rays department of Punjab Dental Hospital Lahore was in one room, and it was only periafixed X-ray facility of Seimmen Company, the cone was fitted to the metal bulb of light machine, the patients were seated in the dental chair. Perhaps it was only one machine available in the dental department of de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Dr. Haider Tirmzi was the incharge of the X-Rays.
The discovery of X-Ray by wilhelum Conrad Rontgen in 1895 was a great revolution in the field of medical engineering which has given shape for future diagnosis and later on it acts as a good quality in health care. If there was a need in case of fracture of jaw then the patient have to be sent to the X-ray department of Mayo Hospital. We used to visit the X-ray department there was no protection wall, the X-ray was great benefit in the diagnosis and treatment. Mr. Salim Sh. Was the X-ray operator he had gone for higher qualification in London thus the quality and liability of the X-Ray unit was efficient.
Now the changes in the modern engineering in the field of X-ray are much of the advanced technologies has come forward for giving detailed information for solution of the problems facing by the patients and dentists. This X-ray unit was the first hand experience of diagnosis to the students and to the teachers.
Teaching of dentistry in those days of 1947-60 was not so forward and it was in the process of advancement but no revolution. Almost all the teaching departments i.e. oral surgery, operative dentistry, orthodontics and prosthetic were not well developed. In exodentia rooms the teeth were removed under local anesthesia. Boiling of instruments was the only source of sterilization and the needle for local anesthesia were sharpened on the stones, as there was account of needles used. General anesthesia was ethyl chloride and chloroform and masks. The higher surgery was at minimal level.

From 1934 to 1947 there were only 11 Muslim students:

  1. Dr. Abdul Haq.
  2. Dr. Mohammad Hafeez
  3. Dr. Abdul Latif.
  4. Dr. Rashid Erabie were MBBS & BDS as a condensed two years course. The other Muslims students were :
  5. Jamil Ahmed
  6. Mohammad Yaqub
  7. Mohammad Yasin
  8. Mohammad Hussain
  9. B. A. Yazdanie
  10. Ijaz ul Haq
  11. Haider Tirmzi

Before partition, Dr. C. D. Marshal Day was the Principal and Professor of Oral Surgery. There were only three senior teachers, Dr. M. L. Watts, Dr. J. C. Manchanda & Dr. U. S. Malik out of six Demonstrators, only tow Muslims. Dr. C. D. Marshall Day, Professor of Oral Surgery, Dr. J. C. Manchanda Prof. of Operative & Orthodontist, Dr. M. L. Watts (Prosthetics), Dr. Balraj Vacheer, Dr. Bajnath, Dr. Abdul Latif, Dr. Abdul Haq and Dr. Hafeez were Demonstrators.


Dentistry was not a popular science at the time of partition. It was practiced by the medical men or unqualified practitioners or people trained from the private dental training centers / colleges. Medical profession was popular and this branch of medicine was for medical graduates at de'Montmorency College of Dentistry established in 1934 for two years course after MBBS. Later on, it was converted to 4 years course having the degree of bachelor of dental Surgery University of Punjab. The teachers in this Teaching Institute were the graduates of this college. In the beginning there was hardly any person holding a foreign degree in dentistry. The first Muslim Principal was Dr. AbduL Haq, MBBS, BDS. He was replaced by Dr. H. R. Shah, B. A. and LDS (Edin) U. K.
The dental students were trained for basic subjects of medicine and general surgery at the K. E. Medical College for three years. The medical students looked down upon the dental students and so did the public. Dental surgery was practiced by the Chinese at Karachi and by quacks in various parts of the Country. The first choice of the students after F. Sc. was not dentistry but medicine and those who were rejected or not selected by Medical Colleges alone used to seek admission in dentistry. A dental graduate like the medical graduate is to undergo four professional examinations of the University of the Punjab and the medical graduates spend five years, the additional year is spent on basic subjects of anatomy, biochemistry etc. with the result that medical graduates are fully equipped with the phenomena and comprehensive knowledge regarding each part of human body. The dental graduate or dental students on the other hand, are taught the subject of general anatomy. Thus their knowledge is less detailed and they do not possess the knowledge of the human body. With the result the confidence in the profession automatically lacks.
I was given admission in Dhaka Medical College as a representative of the NWFP Government. Since there was scarcity of the qualified dental surgeon in the country after partition, the Government of NWFP headed by Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan advised me to join dentistry in order to fill up the gap in this area in the province of NWFP. So I was given scholarship by the Govt. Rs. 50/- PM as hostel charges and college fee was submitted by the Govt.

During my student life I found dental students are looked down upon by the medical students and the public is not aware of the importance of the teeth though dental graduates were trained by the professors of KEMC both in the outdoor and indoor but still the dental students were considered less important than the medical graduates.

To change the distorted image of this profession I started giving lectures on dental care in various schools and colleges and it met with a great response and the press covered all the activities. Gradually the dental science gained popularity and importance. The first thing was the celebration of Dental Health Week in 1954. It was inaugurated by the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mr. Justice Muhammad Munir and I as the General Secretary of the Student Union, visited Islamia School Sheranwala Gate, Muslim High and Middle school Baghbanpura, Rangmahal Mission High School, and Islamia High School Bhati Gate, Lahore. Similar lectures were given in the Muslim League High School Empress Road, Lahore.
We toured various parts of the Country I took dental students to district Hazara, Rawalpindi where I delivered lectures in the Colleges and schools and discussions were made thus the people were getting awareness and asked many questions regarding dental health. I visited Bahawalpur in 1954. We visited Govt. College Abbotabad, District Police Abbotabad and five high school of the same area. The press covered all this. During this period the topic was awareness of dental diseases.
During this period there was an essay competition on dental health held in 1955 in which I won the first prize.
The foreign student s delegation: We had the foreign students from India and from Great Britain to Dental College during my Secretary General ship period. Reception was given to these students and importance of dentistry was discussed. No health plan is complete without dental science subject. Mr. Daleep Sing leader of Indian Students also responded and the importance of dentistry was highlighted by the press. During my student life I played a very important role condemning quackery and promoting scientific way of treatment in dentistry.


I joined de'Montmorency Dental College Lahore in 1952 after doing my F. Sc (pre-medical) from Islamia College, Peshawar. Lahore was a new place for me in all matter because my early and matriculation education had taken place in Sanatan High School and Government High School Haripur Hazara. Both Haripur and Peshawar are backward areas in education status. There were two colleges in Peshawar in whole of NWFP. Districts Hazara, Mardan, Kohat, Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu had no degree colleges. There was no University at the time of partition in NWFP. University of Peshawar was created in 1950.

The dental students of de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore have to attend basic subjects like Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Pathology, Radiology, Pharmacology, General Medicine and surgery in King Edward Medical College, Lahore. King Edward Medical College, Lahore is the premier institution established in 1860 and my education in such established institution was a blessing.

My exposure to the students, staff and teachers of King Edward Medical College and de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore became vital on the visit of Madir-e-Millat Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah in King Edward Medical College sports day on 20th December 1952 as a Chief Guest. I was very active in Pakistan Movement affairs as a school boy in Haripur and luckily I was appointed as a bodyguard by Pakistan Muslim League Haripur on arrival of Madri-e-Millat on 30 May 1949, she was supposed to inaugurate Pioneer Girls High School at Haripur. Prior to this there was no girls school.

On hearing of her arrival at King Edward Medical College, Annual Sports Day I composed my sentiments in English poetry. As a first year student I walked into the office of Principal King Edward Medical College, Lahore Prof. Col. Elahi Bakhsh who was tall, full of glamour a great personality and a marked sense of judgment. He said, what is your purpose? I pleaded my case that I wanted to present welcome address in poetry to Madri-e- Millat as I was her bodyguard. He saw me and my typed poem, which I had placed before him. He gave a smile, appreciated me and allowed me to recite. I got this poem printed and read the poem, at annual function of King Edward Medical College, Lahore, it was appreciated by Madri-e-Millat Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah and Professors of both colleges. She also recognized me and asked me if I was the same boy who was shouting slogans at Haripur I said "Yes Madam". So I became a popular student in my college. I was regular in my studies and I used to come to college on my second hand bicycle. This cycle had no brakes and I used my legs to stop it and I used to give a ride to my friend class fellow Saeed Ahmed Malik who has settled in U. K.

After passing my first professional examination of BDS from Punjab University I was encouraged by my teachers for doing some social work and we had arranged celebration of dental health week 1953. Dr. Hassan Raza Shah was the Principal and Medical Superintendent of the Punjab Dental Hospital, he was elected as a President Pakistan Dental Association and had arranged comprehensive dental exhibition in the lawn of Dental College near Badshahi Mosque and dental posters for education of public were distributed. There was an Essay competition in Urdu and English during dental health week. I got first prize in Urdu and 2nd prize in English. It boosted my courage and I became even more popular among the students.

The Chief Justice of Pakistan Justice Munir was the Chief Guest and this function was attended by the then Secretary Health (English man), Prof. Dr. Shujat Ali, Principal Fatima Jinnah Medical College, staff and students of KE college and others.

During this health week I played a very active role. After 3rd year I started giving lectures to the students of various schools of Lahore and elsewhere. I delivered lecture on general health and dental public health in Muslim League School, Empress Road, Lahore, Oules Haris High School, Waris Road Lahore. The function of prize distribution at de'Montmorency College of Dentistry was held in 1953 where Abdul Hameed Khan Dasti, Minister for Health was chief guest. Similarly dental health week during the month of Nov. 1954 was celebrated. Then I was General Secretary of the College Students Union. I used to deliver lecture in different part of country and I visited Rawalpindi - Hazara and delivered lectures in Faiz ul Islam High School, government high school Harripur and many such schools were visited by me. I also visited, Abbotabad, Hassan Abdal, where the lectures were given on oral hygiene. Such news were published in the dailies Amroze, Nawa-e-Waqt, Kohistan, Afaq and others at that time, I have got cuttings for record. As a General Secretary I have received the dental student delegates from India and have mutual discussion for promotion of dentistry.

We used to have joint sports and dramas and social activities with King Edward Medical College. I was active in dramatics and advisor for famous drama called "Khala" staged in 1954. I was known debater of English and Urdu of dental college and represented my college in almost all debates of Lahore and got prizes. We used to have combined sports with medical college and used to pick up most prizes.

I have attended the lecture of Miss Helen Keller the world known deaf and dumb, blind woman. She delivered lecture in KEMC with her companion's translation with stick, she was a great lady.

During my study days at de'Montmorency 1952-56. I had the occasion to meet Sir Zafarullah Khan then Federal Minister who used to visit dental Hospital for having full prosthodontic denture of Dr. Ejaz ul Haq who later on became his son-in-law of Sir Zafarullah Khan, both were belonged to Ahmedi Sect. Later on Sir Zafarullah Khan became judge of International Court of Justice Hague (Holland). He used to visit department of prosthetic to get instructions from Dr. Ejaz and Dr. B. A. Yazdanie. Since I was an active person I used to have conversation with Sir Zafarullah Khan. Similarly I met Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan redshirt leader of NWFP who used to visit dental hospital for his denture. I have also seen the other high officials and hence my courage to speak with such people. A very fascinating episode happened during 1955 when Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Prime Minister of Pakistan visited Lahore and wanted to communicate to students and teachers of University about formation of one unit. I was president of dental student union, secretary general all Pakistan science students federation, general secretary Hazara Muslim Students Federation and Chairman of World University services Punjab University and general secretary Old Boys Association Islamia College Peshawar.

So I was invited at Governor House to meet the Prime Minister of Pakistan along with other student leaders of King Edward Medical College, Oriental College, Govt. College etc. and teachers, principals of various colleges and officers of Punjab. Reception was held in the lawn of Governor House Lahore. Shortly before the function, it started to rain and function was shifted to inside of Governor House. At the time of entry of Prime Minister of Pakistan Muhammad Ali in the hall, bugle was blown and he appeared from a door. Luckily I was standing before this door. I introduced myself as President Dental Student's Union, Ch. Muhammad Ali, Prime Minister of Pakistan smiled. Thus I had the honour to accompany the Prime Minister to the audience. I introduced all the teachers and students leader turn by turn to the Prime Minister. I requested him to be seated for tea, he kindly asked me to sit with him I did so. I started introducing my profession and college and purpose of dental education and explained to the Prime Minister importance of this science. I requested him that dental profession needs protection and equal status like medial profession. In those days dentistry was not regarded as a significant branch of medical science. Though our 3 years education of basic subjects and medical subjects were taught at KEMC but the students of medical college looked down upon us. People regarded dentists as "extractors of teeth" no respect was given, because there was no dental surgeon in Pakistan.


Students Education on Dental Health

The Central Council of the Pakistan Dental Association has decided to launch a campaign from Monday next, to educate students of Lahore, on dental health. According to a programme chalked out by the Association, party of PDA Members headed by Dr. M. A. Soofi, Secretary, Pakistan Dental Association will pay a visit to the Central Training College on the first day of the campaign lectures on dental care will be given with the help of movies. Literature will also be distributed. Next on the list is Dayal Singh College. Dr. Soofi has appealed to the students to attend the lectures in large numbers.

Dental Health Week - Essay competition Winners

The following students have been awarded prizes in the essay competition held in connection with the Dental Health Week: Colleges: Miss Hafiza Naz (Islamia College for Women); Mr. M. A. Soofi (Dental College); and Mr. Murtaza Hussain Malik (Government College, Montgomery). Schools: Mr. Mohammad Usman (of Dally District Nawabshah); Mr. Mohammad Akhtar (Model High School, Lahore); and Razia Begum (Sacred Heart School, Lahore) 1953.
Dental Health Week inaugurated by Mr. Justice Muhammad Munir, Chief Justice of Pakistan.


At that time of partition the qualified Dental Surgeons were Dr. J. C. Manchande, Dr. U. S. Malik, Dr. M. L. Watts, Balrj. Vachher, Dr. C.D. Mrshal Day and S. K. Shoree left for Bharat and were very few left in Pakistan like Dr Abdul Haq, Prof. Dr. B. A. Yazdanie, Dr. Haider Tirmizi graduated in 1946, they were demonstrators in 1947 whereas Dr. Abbass Haider was the only graduate as a single student in 1948 and become demonstrator. The existing staff at de' Montmorency College of Dentistry was Dr. Abdul Haq BDS, MBBS, Principal, Dr. H. R. Shah LDS, RCS (Edin) came from Army to civil side Dr Ejaz Ul Haq, Dr Hamayyun Akhtar (1953) (Operative), Dr Shafiq Ahmed, Dr Yazdanie and Dr Haider Tirmizi as demonstrators.
In October 1949 Dr. H. R. Shah LDS, RCS convened a meeting of practicing dental surgeons at Lahore in the clinic of Dr. Jalal ud Din Dental Practitioner, Mall Road, Lahore. Later on, meeting used to held at Lorang Hotel near Lion Art Press, The Mall and Standard Hotel near Regal Cinema where Miss Angila used to dance and tea was served for 5 Annas including dance. The meeting used to be attended by Dr. B. A. Yazdanie, Dr. Abdul Haq, Dr. Hamayoun and Mr. S. M. Iqbal, Dr. Shah and unqualified practitioner as executive members. Later on Dr. Abu Hyder Sajedur Rahman and Dr. Fakhar uz Zaman from East Pakistan graduates of 1955 were also made the member of executive of Pakistan Dental Association. There was Rs.5/ monthly subscription for PDA. This organization was comprising of qualified and unqualified dentists of Lahore. Mr. S. M. Iqbal was most active organizer having the knowledge and ethic of journalism. He attracted the youngster to come forward for the activity of the organization and it was his fascinating style that we the youngster as a student joined the organization as special member and became workers thus Dental Health Week organized in 1954 and it was very big show at the lawn of Punjab Dental Hospital, all the departments of de'Montmorency College of Dentistry exhibited their material, equipment, models and it was attended by Col. S. M. K. Malik who was Inspector General of Jail and Health Govt. of Punjab and the then Chief Justice, Justice Munir was chief guest. Detail of Dental Health Week and message from Miss Fatima Jinnah is as under published in daily Pakistan Times: -
Miss Fatima Jinnah has, in a message for the Dental Health Week, stressed the importance of dental hygiene. "No health programme is complete that does not include the dental phase".
The Dental Health Week will be observed by the Pakistan Dental Association from November 14 to 20, 1954. An exhibition will be held at the Punjab Dental Hospital where cinema shows have also been arranged for November 15 and 16. The week will be inaugurated at the Punjab Dental Hospital by the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mr Mohammad Munir, on November 14 at 3.30 PM.

Indian Students entertained

Members of the Indian students goodwill mission were entertained to a coffee party by the Punjab Muslim Students Federation on Sunday. Welcoming the delegation, Mr. M. A. Soofi, General Secretary of the Federation expressed the hope that mutual visits by delegations would foster friendly ties between the people of the two countries.

Mr. Dulip Singh, speaking on behalf of the visiting students expressed his thanks for the warm reception accorded to them during their visit to Pakistan. Members of Lahore college unions and workers of the Federation were also present at the function.