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Chaptar-1

HISTORY OF DENTISTRY - 3000 BC -2000 AD

3100-2181 BC

HESI-RE is the earliest dentist known by name. Extraction was the first choice for dental trouble. The coarse diet consumed by the Egyptians was the primary cause of dental diseases. Historical texts show numerous references to toothache, pulpitis, erosion & gingivitis.

900-300 BC

THE MAYAS

Work on teeth was done not for dental maintenance or hygiene, but strictly for ritual, religious purposes, Jade and turquoise stones are implanted in the teeth Speculation is that the Mayans were the first to perform tooth transplantation.

460-377 BC

THE GREEKS

Hippocrates writes about tooth decay and theorizes that dental problems arise from a natural predisposition or inherited weaknesses. Ancient Greeks use pumice, talc, emery, ground alabaster, coral powder and iron rust as dentifrice, Fingers were used as a tooth brush.

166-201 AD

THE ROMANS

The Etruscans become experts in restorative using gold crowns and fixed bridgework. Full and partial dentures are not uncommon. The Romans have high regard for oral hygiene. They use bones, eggshells and oyster shells mixed with honey to cleanse the teeth.

249 AD

APOLLONIA, the parton Saint of Dentists burned after having her teeth knocked out. Depictions of her are usually shown with forceps.

1452-1527

LEONARDO DA VINCI, depicts the maxillary antrum.

PARACELSUS, a Swiss, greatly expounds upon the pharmacology of drugs available to dentistry. Quinine and ipecacuanha are still in use to day Guttapercha is also still in use for root canal fillings.

1563-1728

The first dental anatomist, BARTO LOMMENO EUSTACHIO, publishes Pamphlet On The Teeth, which covers anatomy and histology of the teeth. PIERRE FAUCHARD, Publishes Teeth, elevates dentistry to new levels. He advocates that instead of patients sitting on the floor, they sit on the chair.

1746-1755

PHILLIP PFAFF

Proposes using softened wax to take impressions of the take impressions of the teeth.

CLAUDE MOUTON
Makes gold crown. He also recommends enameling the gold crown, in order to promote more pleasing aesthetic dentistry.

1764

The key is used by dentist in the American colonies to extract teeth. Some Keys were made by black Smith, who often served as the local dentist.

1771-1775

JOHN HUNTER, British Surgeon names incisors, cuspids, and bicuspids. The silversmith, PAUL REVERS, using previously constructed dental bridgework, identifies dead body based on finding the bridge in the mouth of deceased. This is the first time dental work is used to identify a person after death.

1790

JOSIAH FLAGG, using the design of Windsor Chair, constructs the first chair, made specifically for dentists.

GEORGE WASHINGTON
was elected president. At the time of his election, he had only one tooth, a lower left bicuspid. George Washington NEVER had wooden teeth. His dentures were manufactured from gold, hippopotamus tusk, and elephant ivory and human teeth.

1792

R.C.SKINNER, establish first in-hospital dental clinic in the United States, for those who cannot afford the fees. He also is firm advocate of preventive dental maintenance's Skinner is considered the father of American dental Literature.

1797-1832

NICOLAS DUBOIS DE CHEMANT
Patents porcelain teeth.
JAMES SNEEL
Invents the first reclining dental chair

1843-1844

SAMUEL. WHITE
A Philadelphia jeweler, opens what would become the largest dental manufacturing company in the world.

1845

Pacifiers of teethes are made from coral and used to expedited eruptions of the teeth in children. There is evidence, they were used earlier.

1846

WILLAM MORTON
Uses ether, a first, and also invents the ether inhaler, at Mass General Hospital.

1866

LUCY BEAMAN HOBBS,
A graduate of the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, becomes the first woman in the world to become a licensed dentist.

1868
New York is the first state, which proposes examination of dental candidates

1868-1872
The first electric dental drill was invented in 1868 by GEORGEF. GREEN, a mechanic of the S.S. White Company. In 1872, the S.S. White Company put the first electric drill on the market. The motor was incorporated directly into the hand piece. The majority of dentists used the foot driven drill because most clinics in the country were not electrified.

1895-1896
G.V. BLACK perfects the formulation for amalgam for dental fillings: 68% silver with small amounts of coper, tin and zine, Expansion and contraction of fillings can now be controlled.
WILHELM ROENTEN
Invents the X-RAY. In 1901 he was awarded with the Nobel Prize. C. DEMUND KELLS Uses the first x-ray in dental practice.

1905-1925
Dr. Alfred Fones of Connecticut, trains his assistant Ms. Irene Newman to do prophylactic work on children. She becomes the first dental hygienist in the world. Dr. Trendley Dean proposes the DMF Index as quantitative means of measuring decay. He extensively studies fluoride and its impactonteeth. The American Society for the promotion of children's Dentistry is founded.

1935
ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY, WASSMUND
In 1935 established the treatment technique for orthognathic surgery and the year developed into most sophisticated surgery of modern established treatment for entirety.

GRADNER COLTON
Demonstrates the effects of nitrous oxide.
1952
DENTAL IMPLANTS
The present surge in the use of implants was primarily initiated by BRANEMARK in 1952 Who established the relationship between titanium and bone.

CULTURAL HERITAGE OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD

The advent of Islam in the world proved to be momentous in the development of Intellectual and artistic talents flowering into a variety of fields. The so-called Dark Ages, to quote Philip K. Hitti, "held no blackout for the Arabic speaking peoples and Muslim lands. Throughout a large part of that period, the torch of culture and enlightenment was kept aflame from the confines of China in the east, through Western Asia, North Africa and South Western Europe, to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean".
Since the religion of Islam transcends the national limitations based on geographical and linguistic boundaries, the sprit of Islamic culture likewise, strives to evolve universality in every aspect of its productive activity. Therefore, wherever the Arabs went forth from their peninsula under the banner of Islam, they became the beneficiaries of an collaborators with the peoples whom they conquered; "Turanians and Iranians, Syrians and Armenians, Arabians and Berbers, and a lusians and Sicilians, all were making contributions of greater or less significance to science, philosophy, art and literature".
It was between the first and the seventh centuries of the Hijra that Islamic culture had its finest flowering in intellectual achievements and works of art as well as the structures of dynamic social organization.
The mid-seventh century, however, may be said to mark the beginning of the end of the great classical age. The loss of Seville (Spain), and the capture of Baghdad by the Mongols, were grave setbacks to its progress. There were cultural movements of great significance but nothing to match the glory of Baghdad or Cordova.
However, great names were to follow in the ninth century Hijra: the Syrian Hambali jurist Ibn Taymiyya, who after Ghazali played a significant role in Muslim revival; the great social historian Ibne Khaldun; and al-Iji and al-Taftazani who produced monumental theological works. It may, thus, be seen that between the middle of the eighth and the early part of the twelfth century, the Arabic speaking peoples held the intellectual supremacy throughout the civilized world.
As Islam spread to distant lands and different climes, Muslim thinkers and scholars, artisans and craftsmen offered their intellectual legacy and scientific lore, and introduced new techniques and sophistication in crafts seldom known or seen before.
One of the most enduring contributions of Islamic culture was the transmission of learning to the West. The philosophical and metaphysical concepts of Plato and Aristotle, the medical lore of Hippocrates and Galen, the astronomical and mathematical teachings of Ptolemy, all these reached the Christian West mostly through the Arabs. Ibn-e-Rushd and Ibn-e-Sina (Avicenna), al-Kindi and al-Farabi, al-Razi (Rhazes) and al-Sahrawi are only a few among the glaxy that radiated its luster and phenomental influence in the Abbasid period of the ninth and tenth centuries and later in the twelfth century.
It was not simply a transmission of the ancient Greek learning through translation; it also included a large body of original contributions in the humanities, particularly theology, philology and linguistics; history and socialoty; pure and physical science; algebra and alchemy; and medicine and surgery besides astronomy and opticis which by no means exhaust therange of studies and research by the Muslim scholars.
In the sphere of literature and art there is widespread testimony to the vitality of the Islamic heritage and its profound impact. Arabic, the language of the Holy Quran became the vehicle of culture for a whole civilization, creating a new cosmopolitan society on the foundation of Islamic religion and culture in which the various peoples and various cultural elements flourished in a fruitful symbiosis.
While science and technology were dormant in the 8th century A. D. over the greater part of the globe, the Muslims in Arabia started their spectacular intellectual advancement. The first name that comes to mind is that of the scientist Jabi Ibn-Haiyan, the most prominent of the group of scientists/philosophers of the time of Caliph Harun-al-Rashid. He is the author of a book on astrolabes besides his alchemical writings.
Next to Jabir in stature was Yaqub Ibn-Tariq (767-796 A.D.) in Baghdad. He is regarded as the greatest astronomer of his time. He wrote memoirs on sphere and the vision of Kardaja 0 circle was divided into 96 parts and are or the sine of the parts was called Kardaja.
Al-Khwarazmi is graded as the greatest mathematician of the 9th century and one of the greatest of all times. His works surprisingly contain advanced mathematics like analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations. Another Arab scientist, Al-Kindi, wrote a treatise on geometrical and physiological optics.
In the 11th century, Muslim science reached its pinnacle. One finds such celebrities as Ibn-e-Sina, Ibn Al-Haitham, Al-Biruni and Omar Khayyam besides scores of other luminaries who carried the torch of learning in science and technology.
In the final analysis, Islamic culture, being cosmopolitan in its very nature, manifests itself with equal beauty and resplendence all over the world. The progress of Islam in the Sub-continent over the long span of nearly 1300 years of its arrival has undoubtedly shown this characteristic in every field of its artistic creations. The following pages give the reader a glimpse of the different aspects of the great cultural heritage of Islam, which is the proud possession of Pakistan today.
The advent of Islam in the world proved to be momentous in the development of intellectual and artistic talents flowering into a variety of fields. The socalled Dark Ages, to quote Philip
K. Hitti, "held no blackout for the Arabic speaking peoples and Muslim lands. Throughout a large part of that period, the torch of culture and enlightenment was kept aflame from the confines of China in the east, through Western Asia, North Africa and South Western Europe, to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean".
Since the religion of Islam transcends the national limitations based on geographical and linguistic boundaries, the sprit of Islamic culture likewise, strives to evolve universality in every aspect of its productive activity. Therefore, wherever the Arabs went forth from their peninsula under the banner of Islam, they became the beneficiaries of an collaborators with the peoples whom they conquered; "Turanians and Iranians, Syrians and Armenians, Arabians and Berbers, and alusians and Sicilians, all were making contributions of greater or less significance to science, philosophy, art and literature".
It was between the first and the seventh centuries of the Hijra that Islamic culture had its finest flowering in intellectual achievements and works of art as well as the structures of dynamic social organizaton.
The mid-seventh century, however, may be said to mark the beginning of the end of the great classical age. The loss of Seville (Spain), and the capture of Baghdad by the Mongols, were grave setbacks to its progress. There were cultural movements of great significance but nothing to match the glory of Baghdad or Cordova.

However, great names were to follow in the ninth century Hijra: the Syrian Hambali jurist Ibn Taymiyya, who after Ghazali played a significant role in Muslim revival; the great social historian Ibne Khaldun; and al-Iji and al-Taftazani who produced monumental theological works. It may, thus, be seen that between the middle of the eighth and the early part of the twelfth century, the Arabic-speaking peoples held the intellectual supremacy throughout the civilized world.
As Islam spread to distant lands and different climes, Muslim thinkers and scholars, artisans and craftsmen offered their intellectual legacy and scientific lore, and introduced new techniques and sophistication in crafts seldom known or seen before.
One of the most enduring contributions of Islamic culture was the transmission of learning to the West. The philosophical and metaphysical concepts of Plato and Aristotle, the medical lore of Hippocrates and Galen, the astronomical and mathematical teachings of Ptolemy, all these reached the Christian West mostly through the Arabs. Ibn-e-Rushd and Ibn-e-Sina (Avicenna), al-Kindi and al-Farabi, al-Razi (Rhazes) and al-Sahrawi are only a few among the glaxy that radiated its luster and phenomental influence in the Abbasid period of the ninth and tenth centuries and later in the twelfth century.
It was not simply a transmission of the ancient Greek learning through translation; it also included a large body of original contributions in the humanities, particularly theology, philology and linguistics; history and socialoty; pure and physical science; algebra and alchemy; and medicine and surgery besides astronomy and opticis which by no means exhaust therange of studies and research by the Muslim scholars.
In the sphere of literature and art there is widespread testimony to the vitality of the Islamic heritage and its profound impact. Arabic, the language of the Holy Quran became the vehicle of culture for a whole civilization, creating a new cosmopolitan society on the foundation of Islamic religion and culture in which the various peoples and various cultural elements flourished in a fruitful symbiosis.
While science and technology were dormant in the 8th century A. D. over the greater part of the globe, the Muslims in Arabia started their spectacular intellectual advancement. The first name that comes to mind is that of the scientist Jabi Ibn-Haiyan, the most prominent of the group of scientists/philosophers of the time of Caliph Harun-al-Rashid. He is the author of a book on astrolabes besides his alchemical writings.
Next to Jabir in stature was Yaqub Ibn-Tariq (767-796 A.D.) in Baghdad. He is regarded as the greatest astronomer of his time. He wrote memoirs on sphere and the vision of Kardaja 0 circle was divided into 96 parts and the are or the sine of the parts was called Kardaja.
Al-Khwarazmi is graded as the greatest mathematician of the 9th century and one of the greatest of all times. His works surprisingly contain advanced mathematics like analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations. Another Arab scientist, al-Kindi, wrote a treatise on geometrical and physiological optics.
In the 11th century, Muslim science reached its pinnacle. One finds such celebrities as Ibn-e-Sina, Ibn Al-Haitham, Al-Biruni and Omar Khayyam besides scores of other luminaries who carried the torch of learning in science and technology.
In the final analysis, Islamic culture, being cosmopolitan in its very nature, manifests itself with equal beauty and resplendence all over the world. The progress of Islam in the Sub-continent over the long span of nearly 1300 years of its arrival has undoubtedly shown this characteristic in every field of its artistic creations. The following pages give the reader a glimpse of the different aspects of the great cultural heritage of Islam which is the proud possession of Pakistan today.

MEDICAL SCIENCE AND ISLAMIC HISTORY

Abbasid Caliph Al-Mamun (786-833), a noted poet himself, was a great patron of the arts and sciences. The House of Wisdom or the Institute of Higher Learning, he founded more than twelve centuries ago in Baghdad, which attracted a large number of linguists and scholars from around the world who came in quest of new knowledge.
The scholars, Muslim and non-Muslim, who worked there made impressive contributions to science, medicine, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy. Numerous prized books and manuscripts were translated from Greek, Sanskrit and Latin into Arabic, while Arab researchers, enriched the classic texts with their own critical and erudite commentaries. Books, such as the Aristotle's Metaphysics and Theology as well as Galen's entire collection of medical treatise were rendered into Arabic. Many books were also translated from Arabic into Latin and served to transmit the cumulative knowledge of the East and ancient Greece to Europe. The remarkable feature of the Institute was that, in an era of religious orthodoxy and ecclesiastical intolerance, it placed no restrictions on the intellectual thought processes and permitted scholars unprecedented freedom to pursue knowledge wherever it took them. Royal and public patronage joined hands to usher in the golden era of Islamic science that was to last for many centuries.

In time, the majestic Islamic metropolises, Baghdad, Cordoba and Damascus, became centers of excellence, acquiring renown for their unrivalled universities and advanced civilization. The writings of two medieval Muslim physicians and philosophers, Ibn Sena (Avicenna, 980-1037) in Central Asia and Ibn Rushd (Averroes, 1126-1198), in Cordoba are often credited with providing the stimulation that helped launch the European renaissance. Both scholars in their treatises emphasized the importance of logic and reason in understanind natural phenomena, rooted in principles established by Aristotle nearly a millennium earlier. Ibn Sena's celebrated work, The Cannon of Medicine, was translated into Latin and disseminated throughout Erope during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and was to serve as the standard medical text for hundreds of years. Spanish-Muslim philosopher, Ibn Rushd, in his dissertations argued that there was no contradiction between logic and science on the one hand and religion on the other, as both had valid claims on rationality. Perhaps, the last medieval Muslim scholar who made a major contribution ot human knowledge was the anthropologist Ibn Khaldun (1332-1395) who's Muqaddamah is recognized as the earliest, landmark study of the rise and fall of human civilizations.
After flourishing for many centuries, the splendid age of Islamic science seems to have ended around the fifteenth century. For a long time, Muslims had kept only sparse contacts with Eropeans, believing they had little to learn from them. Momentous developments, such as the Renaissance, Reformation and Industrial Revolution, seem to have passed them by, leaving them behind in many branches of knowledge, including science and technology. In recent times, Muslim scientitis working in their own couties have not made for any remarkable discoveries. Out of a total of 787 Nobel Laureates who received the prize since its inception over a century ago, only nine have been Muslims' among these only two, Ahmad Zewail of Egypt and Abdus Salam of Pakistan, were recognized for their contributions to science. However, neither of them worked in his native country. The other seven were Nobel
Peace Prize winners or honored for their contributions to literature. (Ref: Saturday, January 6, 2007 daily DAWN by Dr. Syed Amir).

 

ISLAMIC CONTRIBUTION
Muslim Scientists and Physcians Contributions

    • Hunayn ibn-Ishaq (809-873 AD) and his collegues translated Greek literature into Arabic.
    • Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al Razi (Rhazes)
      (841-926 AD) wrote an encyclopedia, work on medicine and surgery.
    • Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037 AD) wrote famous medical text Canon (Al-Qanoon). Avicenna used an extensive material medica for oral and periodontal diseases and rarely resorted to surgery. Headings in the Canon on gingival disease include "Bleeding gums", "Fissures of the Gums", "Ulcers of the Gums", "Separation of the Gums", "Recession of the Gums", "Looseness of the Gums", and "Epulis".
    • Abu 'L-Qasim (836-1013) made outstanding contributions to dentistry and periodontology. He wrote clearly about etiologic role of calculus, deposits and described in detail the technique of scaling the teeth, using a sophisticated set of instruments that he developed. He also wrote in detail on extraction of teeth, on splinting loose teeth with gold wire, and on filing gross occlusal abnormalities.
    • Mohiuddin Reza Dimashkieh, developed instruments for operative dentistry in 1970-1990. His amalgam carrier, instrument to remove broken files or reamers from root canal system and MRD crown preparation burs are in great use. He is famous for sleeve design crown and bridge preparation.
    • Marwan Abu Ras, developed techniques for root canal system preparation in 1980-1990.