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By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi

The meaning of Hajj in abrabic language to make a resolve to visit the holy place Khana Ka'aba once in life. Since people from all quarters resolve to pay a visit to Ka'aba, it has been designed as Hajj.


It is one of the fundamental obligations of Islam. A muslim (believer of Allah) is required to undertake pilgrimage to the House of God, the Ka'aba, at Mecca at least once in lifetime provided he can afford the expenses of journey.

Sura Al-Imran-95-96:
The Ayat in this Sura give the clear picture of the Khana Ka'aba as the Ayat Says: Certainly the first house appointed for men is the one at Makkah, blessed and a guidance for the nations and in Ayat: In it are clear sings: (It is) the place of Abraham; and whoever enters it is safe; and pilgrimage to the House is a duty which men owe to Allah Whoever can find a way to it. And whoever disbelieves, surely Allah is above need of the worlds.
These Ayat speaks that Mecca has been declared to be the first house raised on earth for worship of the Divine Being, it is, on the other, announced to be mubarak which is blessing and signifies the continuance for ever of the blessing which thing possesses or from which extensive good flows. Mecca is spiritual centre that was appointed for men and it is ultimate spiritual centre for whole of humanity.
The clear signs in Makkah as enumerated here, are three, and these, in fact, are three prophecies with regard to the future of Makkah. The first sign is that it is the Place of Abraham which has already been declared to be the Muslim centre. Hence the first prophecy is that the doctrine of the Unity of the Divine Being will be proclaimed to the whole world from this cetnre. The second sign is that Makkah will always be secure, i.e. it shall not fall into the hands of an enemy who should destroy it. There is a saying of the Prophet (SAW) to the effect that the Antichrist and the plague will not enter Makkah and Madinah. Thus its security is assured both physically and spiritually. The third prophecy is that a pilgrimage to the Sacred House shall continue to be made for ever, and no power in the worked shall ever be able to put a stop to it.
No doubt Hajj is a worship and one of the fundamental pillars of Islam; but it is also an institution for improvement and training of human beings. When a person performs Hajj, he becomes as pure of sins as he was on the day his mother bore him. However it is also necessary that he should obey the commandments of Allah to get the blessings of Allah.
One who strictly acts upon the principles of Hajj, is actually passing through a training period. Whoever learns the lessons, succeeds. The important thing is that what a person learns in this journey, should make a part of his life in future. May Allah enable everyone to perform Hajj. It means that one should have sufficient money or property to meet the expenditure of the journey and should leave sufficient for one's dependents for the period of one's absence from home.


Hajj was made compulsory for those muslims who could afford for travel. The Prophet (SAW) of God Muhammad (SAW) Commander of the Messenger of Allah Seal of the Prophet (SAW), performed Hajj on 10th Hijjra and in his first and last Pilgrimage gave his farewell address – the everlasting and universal charter for the human rights.
The Holy Prophet (SAW) (SAW) addressed a mammath gathering comprising more than a hundred thousands of his companions on the 9th Zul Haj, 10 A. H. From top of Jabal ul Arafat in the valley of Arafat.

It is one of five essentials for those muslims who could afford once in life that before leaving for pilgrimage should have sufficient for his family and could afford expanses of journey for Mecca. More so the journey should be peaceful so that risk of life should be avoided.

Haj & Umrah:
Hajj and Umrah, the latter of which is generally translated as the minor pilgrimage, but which may more correctly be rendered as the visit, differ slightly,. The umrah may be performed at any time, whilst the Hajj or the pilgrimage proper can only be performed at a particular time. Of the ceremonies connected with pilgrimage proper, the staying on the plain of Araft is dispensed with in the case of the umrah. Thus the principal requirements of umrah are ihram, making circuits round the Kabah and running between the Safa and the Marwah.

Surat-Al Hajj (26 -27).
And when We pointed to Abaham the place of the House, saying: Associate naught with Me, and purify My House for those who make circuits and stand to pray and bow and prostrate themselves.
And proclaim to men the Pilgrimage, they will come to thee on foot and on every lean camel, coming from every remote path:


  1. Must be a muslim
  2. He must be free
  3. He must be physically fit
  4. Must he be an adult
  5. Must he have the funds to defray the expenses and earning of family
  6. A woman can perform Hajj if she is accompanied by (Mehram' (husband –son brother or a father).



Reward of Haj performed for sake of God and following Holy Prophet (SAW) Muhammad (SAW) and Ibrahim (AS) is heaven. (Al-Buikhari)
One who has performed Hajj mearly for Allah's happiness and he has saved himself from unpoices action. He returns as innocent of sins as he is new born.
Evenmore, one thinks about day of last and death so, performance of Hajj is the followings footstep of Muhammad (SAW) and Hazrat Ibrahim. However, trade is allowed during Hajj.

Significance of Hajj for Economy

Hajj is not a mere physical ritual. It is an emotional experience. According to the Quran Pilgrimage to that which has been declared sacred by God promotes the righteousness of heart. This is related more to emotion than to reason. Hajj is the symbol of sacrifice and motivates man to sacrifice immediate gains for the achievements of higher purpose. The emotions fostered on the occasion of the pilgrimage fertilize the roots of action and thus lead to a complete metamorphosis of values.

Social Value of Hajj.
Because of Hajj, muslims from all parts of the global converge on Mecca. Hajj is the manifestation of the unity and brotherhood of Muslims. When the pilgrimage is done simple dress of the pilgrimage the pilgrim responds to the call of Allah and says ';My Lord. Here I am' All vanity, pride, distinctions of caste or colour, wealth and position are eliminated, and all persons are in the presence of the Great Master in a state of absolute equity.
For Hajj: Are the month will known, if any one undertakes, tht duty therein. Let there be no obsenity. Nor wickedness, nor wrongliness in the Haj. And what ever good ye do (be sure) God knowth it, and takes a provision, (with you) For the journey, but there best of provision is right conduct so fear Me, O ye that on wise (Sura 11 (196) Baqara.

One should not take any step, which can distrub their security and comfort of pilgrims. Pilgrimage is the 5th pillar of Islam and God Almighty has shown ways of performing the pilgrimage, therefore Haj performance must be with submissiveness and sobriety and subversive act be carried out.


It signifies the sacred precincts for the purposes of Hajj. These limits extend for a certain distances round Mecca. On each of the roads leading to the Mecca from the various directions there are recognized stations at which those going on Hajj stop, remove their ordinary clothes and wear Ihram and say Talbia thrice.
Muhammad (SAW) has too declared such Talbia thrice-after raping cloth of Ihram. One should recite Talbia frequently in day or evening or any time but after kissing or touching Black Stone (Aswad) at the corner of Ka'aba Stop[ Talmia. Similarly o n10 day of Zul-Hajj, throwing of pebbles on, bigger Jammrat: women can recite without loud voice.
Ihram consists of two pieces of white cloth towels. The lower wrap is known as Izar and the upper wrap is known as Rida. Mens' hair are naked while women are liable to warp. One can keep clean and can eat with Ihram. Women and children have to wear the Ihram.

Inward significance of Ihram

The expression of intention to enter into a state of godliness they can keep their customary dress, but their garments should reach to their ankles and their heads should be covered.

Tawaf: Walking once from black stone to black stone around Ka'aba is called (Tawaf). It is the circummambulation of the Holy Ka'aba. The starting point is the sacred black stone and seven circuits are to be completed on foot. Those who are old or sick may be carried. During each circuit the pilgrim is required to utter pious expressions of remembrance of God. At the end of the 7th circuit two ';Rakaats' of prayers are offered at ';Muqaam-i-Ibrahim'.

Following ceremonies in the process of Hajj are essential: -

  1. Shaving the hair from head.
  2. Sacralization i.e. wearing of the Ihram.
  3. Standing at Arafat.
  4. Circumambulating the Ka'aba.
  5. Running between Safa and Marwa.
  6. Passing the night at Muzdalifa.
  7. Passing the night at Mina.
  8. Casting stones at Jimars.
  9. Sacrifice of animals and
  10. Farewell circumambulation of the Ka'aba.

Passing the 2 nights at Mina & return on 8th of Zul Haj.
Mina is a village in a narrow valley outside Mecca. It is the sacred site where Ibrahim (AS) offered sacrifice to God. Here are three places (Jimars) where stones are casted. The ceremony is symbolic of driving away SATANS. The prayer read on the occasion is in the name of God, God is most Great. This casting of stones is against SATAN and his confedrates.

Wuquf: It is the presence of the pilgrim in Ihram in the plain of Arafat. Arafat is 12 miles from Mecca. According to legend after being driven from paradise Adam and Eve were separated, but they met for the first time on the earth at Arafat.

Ceremony about the passing of night at Muzalfa.
Muzalfa is a place roughly half way between Arafat and Mina and is an ancient sacred site. Pilgrims depart from Arafat for Muzalfa after the sun is down and there they offer the Maghrib and Ishaa prayers. In the wilderness at Muzalfa the pilgrims pick forty nine pebbles each to be carried to Mina.

Tashriq: It is the ceremony of the sacrificing of animals in the name of Allah. The ceremony lasts for three days. After making the sacrifices the pilgrims return to Mecca before sunset of the 13th day of Zul Hajj.
Tawaf al Wida. It is the farewell circumamulation made just prior to the pilgrims departure from Mecca. Two rakaa'ts of prayers are offered at the place known as Muqam e Ibrahim. The pilgrim next goes to the well of Zam Zam and drinks of its water. Thereafter he goes out through Babul Wida (farewell gate) and from Mecca.
Shaving. In the case of men the heads are shaved. In the case of women it is enough if only three hair are cut.


One has to make a promise of intention for performing of Haj and ask Allah, it should become easier and be accepted. According to Hadis: One who performed tawaf, there is no better person that him on earth.
Tawaf e Qadoom. Once ye enter Haram must ye perform a Tawaf. This is called Tawaf e Qadoom on your entry.
Tawaf e Ziarat. It is fundamental requirement of Haj performance. It is also called obligatory. It can be performed from morning of 10th Zul Hajj to 12th Zul Hajj but it is better on 10th. If someone misses it no Hajj without Tawaf e Hajj.
Farewell Tawaf. One who is leaving for his country, he is to perform Tawaf called Farewell.
Tawaf e Umra. It is compulsory. Ist Tawaf Ka'aba and then Saee running between two hills of Safa and Marwa.
Entry to Tauf. Once ye enter, you perform Tawaf like 2 Nafal when you enter into the mosque.
Tawaf e Nafal. Whenever you want to perform Tawaf as many time, you can do it as ';Nafal'.
Women should be fully covered, except her face which may be visible. One is to be complete neat and clean and should start for Black Stone. It should be on foot and recite or beg from God, offer two Rakaat at Muqam e Ibrahim.
Laterly it is expressed that running between two Hills outside Mecca (SAFA and MARVA) is carried. One has to complete seven times as Sunnah of Hazrat Hajra, mother of Prophet (SAW) Ismail. It has got an historical event as a background.
Compulsory Instructions for Running.

  1. Wraping of two white clothes for Haj or Umra.
  2. One has to perform himself, if unable, assistance of labourer or trolley is allowed, to be used.
  3. It is started from SAFA with prayers from Allah and ends with seven circles at MARWA.
  4. Niyat, (Intention) is also essential .
  5. Beginning from God, while facing towards Ka'aba.
  6. Reciting of set prayers of Holy Prophet (SAW).
  7. After Saee, two Rakaat Nafal are to be offered.
  8. Men have to run at two points.
  9. One can't do saee before Tawaf e Ka'aba. It is to follow after Tawaf.
  10. Women has to do the same if she is not clean physiologically, she do not enter Ka'aba or saee.
  11. Handicapped can use trolley.