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COLLECTION AND ORDERING OF QUR'AN

COLLECTION AND ORDERING OF QUR'AN

There are evidences that Qur'an was written in the life time of Muhammad (SA) and was memorised too by many companions of Rasul. The writing was done on barks of trees, camel bones and wood with ink or black colour. The companions of the Prophet (SAW) (SA) and many Hafaz used to remember the Holy Qur'an with keenness and love after revelation to Muhammad (SA). It gives us a source of information that Qur'an challenges to the disbeliever's "If you do not believe Qur'an brings forth in written alike such". If we recall, Hazrat Umar-e-Farooq before embracing Islam, when entered into his sister's house, he listened to the recitation of the Holy Qur'an by her and was impressed and his anger melted to water, and he converted himself, as follower of Allah and Muhammad (SA) and said, could I have this written Qur'an" so that I may recite it".

EVIDENCE OF HADITH

a. Bukhari quotes Hazrat Bara Bin Hazar, that when this Ayat Karima (
) was being revealed the Holy Prophet (SAW) Muhammad (SA) called Hazrat Zyed (Rz) and asked that he should bring inkpot and piece of wood and get the Ayat written and thus this task was entrusted to him.

b. Hazrat Usman (Rz) related by Tirmizi when any Ayat was revealed to Muhammad (SA) a writer was called to write, and recite for placement of Ayat in Sura as order of God.

Framing of Qur'an during period of Abu Bakar Siddique (Rz)

Hazrat Abu Bakar (Rz) was elected by the companions after "Rehlat" of the Holy Prophet (SAW) (SA) as first Caliph. Therefore he was supported to take action against disbelievers. And he fought a battle against Yamama, the proclaimer of Prophet (SAW)hood. I was a fearful fight and some of the companions, more than 500/700 Haffaz were martyred in this war, and most of them were ';Qaris' who were trained in the time of Muhammad (SA) and were responsible for communication of Qur'an to rest of Arabs. This brought loss of men who knew Qur'an. Thus Hazrat Umar (Rz) gave a deep thought and consideration on this matter as many remarkable Haffaz and Qaris are being assassinated we may also lose a good portion of the Qur'an. On this prediction he counseled to Caliph Abu Bakar for anticipatory action for collection of Holy Qura'an.

Caliph Abu Bakkar (Rz) appreciated this sound suggestion after great discussion and reason. However the Caliph was of the view, that if Qur'an is being collected and re-shaped in his Khilaphat this may not be the unlawful action. He later on yielded to soundful suggestion based upon reasons put forward by many other important and learned companions of the Rasuul (SA).

It may be remembered that before the advent of Risalat there was developing trend and culture in Meccah for learning and writing and after Hijrat Hazrat Muhammad (SA) appointed certain companions to write Qur'an and there was another evidence that prisoners of battle Badar were set free on the promise, that they shall teach people of Madina the art of writing. Though, many people at Madina did not know art of writing and reading, however, there are many historical evidences that many companions of Prophet (SAW) used to possess written about whole of Qur'an on various pieces.

Therefore, we can conclude that the Holy Qur'an was completely recorded and written with great care during the life of Muhammad (SA) and the Prophet (SAW) (SA) was much concerned during the period of revelation that no other word may be mixed up.

The complete Qur'an was revealed by Allah to Muhammad (SA) through Gabriel on different times, and it was not placed in the shape of book like at present, because writing was costly and rather difficult. The companions of Muhammad (SA) used to record the Ayats of Qur'an on stones, wood, palm or camel bones and many used to memorise it by heart are called Haffaz. More so, there was hardly need of framing it into book in the life time of the Holy Prophet (SAW) (PBUH).

SELECTION OF THE BOARD
Hazrat Abu Bakkar (Rz) the first Caliph of the Islamic World appointed a board to collect Qur'an with great care after getting evidences by other Haffaz under the chairmanship of Hazrat Zayed (Rz) who was too reluctant to take over this scholarly job. But after great persuasion he accepted it. Hazrat Zayed (Rz) used to compile Quranic Ayats for writing purposes and these Ayats were be confirmed by two Haffaz. Thus Qur'an was collected and given present position as it was given during the life time of Muhammad (SA). Therefore the book of Qur'an is in the same tune and line as it was revealed through the Prophet (SAW) Muhammad (SA) by Allah through Gabriel.

ROLE OF HAZRAT UMAR (RZ)
Complete written Quran was placed with first Khalifa, Abu Bakkar (Rz) than to secnd Khalifa, Hazrat Umar (Rz) and before his death, this book was with daughter of Hazrat Umar (Rz), Umal-Mo'minin Hazrat Hifsa (Rz) and remained with her till it was passed onto Caliph Usman (Rz).

CALIPH USMAN (RZ)

Due to difference in dialect in the various parts of Arabia Qur'an used to be recited in the local languages. Thus there was possibility of misunderstanding. So Caliph Usman (Rz) was persuaded to put it in order. Therefore true copy which was with Hazrat Hifsa (Rz) was taken and three member companions were assigned this job. The companions were: -

  • Hazrat Zayed (Rz)
  • Hazrat Umar Sa'd Bin Al – Aas (Rz)
  • Hazrat Abdur Rehman (Rz)

 

They scrutinized the dialects, variations of Quran and adopted Qureshi language and this Holy Book was sent to Caliph and one copy was kept in the custody of Hazrat Hifsa (Rz) daughter of Hazrat Umar (Rz) for the purpose of correction or getting in guidance of Qurani Ayats so that they can seek assistance from this original book.

Hazrat Usman (Rz) not only sent book to different provinces but also sent one Qari of Qur'an so that correct dialect of Arabic language may be recited and taught.

RESULTS

Result of perception and prediction of Hazrat Umar (Rz) appeared in compilation of Qur'an during the reign of the Ist Caliph, Abu Bakkar (Rz) in the supervision of Hazrat Zayed (Rz) and keeping secrecy of Hazrat Umar (Rz) and his daughter Hazrat Hifsa (Rz).

Al-Quran
And they say "We will not put faith in thee till thou cause a spring togush forth from the earth for us".

"Or thou have a garden of date-palms and grapes and cause rivers to gush forth therein abundantly".
"Or thou cause the Heaven to fall upon us piecemeal, as thou hast pretended, or bring Allah and the angles as a warrant".

Thou have a house of gold, or thou ascend up into heaven, and even then we will put no faith in thine ascension till thou bring down for us a book that we can read. Say (O Muhammad (SA). My Lord be glorified. Am I naught save a mortal messenger?

And naught prevented mankind from believing when the guidance came unto them save that they said: Hath Allah, sent a mortal as (His) messenger? Say: if there were in the earth angels waling secure, we had sent down for them from heaven an angle as messenger. Say, Allah sufficeth for a witness between me and you. Lo: He is Knower, Seer of His Slaves".

Al Quran XVII 90-96